Lorena M. Ayoub, BS
Jessa E. Miller, MD
Jennifer L. Taylor-Cousar, MD MSCS
Daniel M. Beswick, MD
University of Vermont, Larner College of Medicine;
Educational Objective: At the conclusion of this presentation, the participants should be able to 1) understand the prevalence of subjective and objective olfactory dysfunction among people with cystic fibrosis; and 2) discuss how olfactory dysfunction impacts quality of life.
Objectives: Evidence describing olfactory dysfunction (OD) in people with cystic fibrosis (PwCF) is limited. The goal of this study was to systematically review the literature on OD in PwCF and describe the prevalence and impact of this complication.
Study Design: Systematic review.
Methods: A systematic review was performed using PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted of articles that examined OD in PwCF. PubMed, Ovid Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, MedRxiv, Web of Science, and NSHL databases were searched. A total of 85 articles were identified, of which 12 met inclusion criteria.
Results: Of twelve studies analyzed, eleven were prospective observational studies and one was a retrospective cohort study. Psychophysical olfactory testing, such as Sniffin' Sticks Testing and the 40 question Smell Identification Test, were utilized in eight studies. A total of 282 PwCF were included in these studies (136 females, mean age 21.1 years). Three of eight studies examined pediatric patients. In these eight studies, the prevalence of OD ranged from 9.5-81.7%, while rates of anosmia ranged from 5-14%. In two studies, OD was associated with an elevated odor detection threshold, however odor identification was not affected. Four studies failed to identify any association between OD and nutritional status.
Conclusions: OD is common in PwCF. Most PwCF have hyposmia while anosmia is less common. Understanding how OD affects PwCF is critical to disease management and quality of life optimization.